Consequences of venous insufficiency
There is a common misperception about varicose veins – that they are only a cosmetic problem and as a result of neglecting problem and disease progression they are become a major health problem.
As a result of untreated, venous disease leads to the appearance of several significant complications:
TThrombosis and inflammation of the superficial veins (Superficial thrombophlebitis)
Superficial thrombophlebitis is a common inflammatory-thrombotic disorder in which a thrombus develops in a vein located near the surface of the skin which occurs in about 50% of patients with untreated superficial varicose veins.
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
5-15% of patients with thrombophlebitis can develop thrombosis of deep venous system. As a result of the thrombus migration the pulmonary embolism may occur, which is a potential fatal complication. Also, the risk of deep vein thrombosis is three times higher in patients with varicose veins compared to the general population.
Bleeding from a varicose vein
Massive hemorrhage is an unusual complication of this common venous pathology that demands immediate medical intervention. Two types of ulceration related to fatal hemorrhage have been described: the acute perforative type, which is a small lesion (<50mm) with almost no skin involvement; and the chronic ulceration, being a large lesion (10-100 mm) associated with skin pigmentation and induration and erosion into a superficial or deep vein of the leg. First aid consists in the strong pressure on the bleeding site and raising your leg.
Venous ulcers (venous insufficiency ulceration, stasis ulcers, stasis dermatitis, varicose ulcers, or ulcus cruris) are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs (hence leg ulcers). They are the major occurrence of chronic wounds, occurring in 70% to 90% of leg ulcer cases. Venous skin ulcers are slow to heal and often come back if you don't take steps to prevent them. Venous ulcers develop mostly along the medial distal leg, and can be very painful.